Tuesday, October 17, 2006

Noun Phrase

A noun phrase is a group of words that does the work of a noun. A noun phrase is either a pronoun or any group of words that can be replaced by a pronoun.

'they', 'bicycles', and 'the bicycles' are noun phrases, but 'bicycle' is just a noun, as you can see in the sentences below.
  • Q: Do you like bicycles?
  • A: Yes, I like them.
  • Q: Do you like the bicycles over there?
  • A: Yes, they are nice.
  • Q: Do you like the bicycle I bought last week?
  • A: Yes, I like it. (Note: 'It' refers to 'the bicycle', not 'bicycle')

Noun Premodifiers - Modifiers before the noun are called premodifiers. (modify means to limit, restrict, characterize, or otherwise focus meaning). All of the premodifiers that are present and the noun together form a noun phrase.

Noun Post-Modifiers - Modifiers coming after a noun are called post-modifiers.

Structures of Noun phrases

1. NOUN PHRASE: premodifiers + noun                                                                     
  • White house (white is a pre-modifier and house is a noun)                                                 
  • The three old Democratic legislators (the three old Democratic is pre-modifier and legislators is a noun)    
2. NOUN PHRASE: noun + post-modifiers 
(The most common post-modifiers are prepositional phrases).
  • The glass on the table. (on the table is the post-modifier)
  • The boy in the store. (in the store is the post-modifier)
3. NOUN PHRASE: pre-modifier + noun + post-modifier. 
The noun together with all pre and post-modifiers constitutes a single unit, a noun phrase that indicates the complete reference.
  • The boys on top of the house. (The is the pre-modifierboys is the noun, on top of the house is the post-modifier)

What is a Phrase ?

Phrase is a group of words, which makes sense, but not complete sense, is called a Phrase. It is a group of related words without a Subject and a Verb.
A Phrase consists of two or more words lacking a complete sense and a complete verb. It may consist of one or more incomplete verbs - the Infinitives or the Participles standing on their own.

Words/group of words in italics are phrases in examples below:

  • The sun rises in the east.
  • Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall.
  • She wore a hat with blue trimming.
  • The accident on the bridge was not serious.
  • The girl with red hair is an artist.
  • Sasha took a long leave.
  • Holding the toy, the child slept.
Identify phrases in the sentence below:
  • Every flower is a soul blossoming in nature.
For answer to above, click: What is a Phrase?

Saturday, July 15, 2006

What is a Clause ?

Clause: A group of Subject - Predicate construction is called a Clause. 
A Subject and a Predicate form a clause
Such a group of words which forms part of a sentence, and contains a Subject and a Predicate, is called a clause.
  • He has a chain which is made of gold(which - subject; is made of gold - predicate).
  • I think that you have made a mistake. (you - subject; have made a mistake - predicate).

Independent Clause: can stand alone or makes a coomplete sense in itself.

Note: A simple sentence has just one clause, called an independent clause.

Dependent Clause or Subordinate ClauseThe dependent clause cannot stand alone as a short but complete sentence.
  • When Ram writes stories, he observes other people closely(Ram - subject; when writes stories - predicate). The word when signals that additional words are needed to complete its meaning.


What is a clause?
Subject and Predicate

Thursday, April 27, 2006

Grammer - Subject and Predicate

What is a subject?
The subject is the person, place, or thing that acts, is acted on, or is described in the sentence.
There are three types of subjects:

1. Simple subject: a noun or a pronoun

  • she
  • he
  • cat
  • city
2. Complete subject: a noun or a pronoun plus any modifiers
  • the black cat
  • the clouds in the sky
  • his big house
  • the hungary lion 
3. Compound subject: two or more subjects joined by a conjunction 
  • Peter or Harry
  • the cat and the mouse
  • she and I
  • a bat and a ball 

What is a predicate?
A predicate usually follows the subject , tells what the subject does, has, or is, what is done to it, or where it is. It is the action or description that occurs in the sentence.

There are three types of predicates:

1. Simple predicate: a complete verb (a verb and any helping verbs)
  • stand
  • was dancing
  • could have sung
  • is sleeping
2. Complete predicate: a simple predicate plus all modifiers
  • sit on the couch
  • was singing sweetly
  • could have danced across the floor
  • was reading loudly 
3. Compound predicate: two or more predicates with the same subject
  • was singing quietly and sweetly
  • could have danced across the floor and stayed awake all night
  • sit on the couch or sit on the floor
  • play cards or watch television
Generally all sentences need a subject and a predicate.

Simple Subject: Peter
Complete Subject: My friend Peter
Compound Subject: Peter and I
Simple Predicate: jumped
Complete Predicate: jumped on the bed
Compound Predicate: jumped on the bed and fell on the floor

Subject + Predicate 

Peter jumped.
Peter and I jumped.
My friend Peter jumped on the bed.
Peter jumped on the bed and fell on the floor.
Peter and I jumped on the bed.

NOTE: A command is the only type of sentence that has no subject. The subject (“you”) is implied.

1. Stop.
  • Implied subject: you
  • Predicate: stop
2. Read the book.
  • Implied subject: you
  • Predicate: read the book
3. Stand up
  • Implied subject: you
  • Predicate: stand up